Federal University of Ceara, Department of Computer Science, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, Federal University of Piaui, Department of Computer Science, Teresina-PI, Brazil, You can also search for this author in - The experiment was conducted through of the following activities (see Fig. When written properly, it will identify potential errors in the system before designed. On the other hand, we defined four exclusion criteria: (EC1) the study is not written in English; (EC2) the study is just published as an abstract; (EC3) the study does not contain a template for textual use cases description with focus on an SPL; and. Wohlin, C, Runeson P, Host M, Ohlsson M, Regnell B, Wesslen A (2000) Experimentation in Software Engineering: An Introduction. Dahan, M, Shoval P, Sturm A (2014) Comparing the impact of the oo-dfd and the use case methods for modeling functional requirements on comprehension and quality of models. Alternatively a Use Cases may describe the interaction between two systems where no human is involved and in this case the Actor is the external system. The Use Case Specification is represented in the Use Case Diagram by an oval, and is what most … Use Case Templates Use case specifications tend to be written in a standardized form, and over the years a number of use case specification templates have been created including the one you can download from here. We can use the below sample outline to create our own use case specification documents : 1.USE CASE ID : States a unique ID for each use case. Instead, a proper use case diagram depicts a high-level overview of the relationship between use cases, actors, and systems. Each of them can have variation points just like other functional steps of the use cases. In this process, unlike the development process of traditional applications, there are three essential activities (Northrop and Clements 2007): core assets development, product development, and management. As a result, the templates of Bertolino et al. In the first phase, Research Directives, the protocol and the research questions are established. This work focuses on the assessment of different textual use case templates and their impact on the comprehension of the SPL use cases. In that way, even a small change in the common use case scenario (e.g. m Then, two selection criteria were established to define which template would be used in the experiment: a) the template should not model the final product in the specification, since this reduces the maintainability; and b) the template should describe explicitly the variability type, because this allows the understanding of the use case without other models. The final question was used to cut off the executions that had low quality. i Finally, in the fourth step we removed the duplicate templates. Finally, Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm (2014) presented a controlled experiment where they examined the comprehensibility of domain models specified in a UML-based SPL Engineering method. It is … Each tag is expanded in a section called “Variations” and is mapped to the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM). In order to minimize the effects of the lack of knowledge on the experimental study factors, a training session was conducted with all the participants about basic concepts related to SPL and use cases, as well as about the use case template structures used in the experiment. Furthermore, the choice of which structure each volunteer would use in each task was made randomly. 2010). These databases are listed in Table 1 and were selected because we agree with (Morelli and Nakagawa 2011; Souza et al. In order to analyze the results, we have applied several tests using the SPSS tool (IBM 2015). Internal validity The experiment design was planned to minimize the effects of the threats to internal validity. This tutorial explains how to create a detailed Use Case Template Text. Ismayle S Santos. Answer: The Tags structure, represented by the template of Eriksson et al., favors the understanding of the use cases. Bertolino and Gnesi (2003) propose a template called PLUC (Product Line Use Cases) that allow variations to be described, by explicitly enclosing within the sections of the use cases some tags that indicate the variable parts. Use Case Identification. (Simply saying that use … Yu, W, Zhang W, Zhao H, Jin Z (2014) Tdl: a transformation description language from feature model to use case for automated use case derivation In: Proceedings of the 18th International Software Product Line Conference.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. In general, the questions in the use cases associated to the variation points also improved the use cases’ understanding. Primarily meant to analyze the different parts of the syst. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. The keywords in this category are: Tags: The use case template uses tags (e.g. Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development The time spent using this structure is statistically higher than using other structures. From Step 1 we found a large number by our search criteria. r However, when we compared with the first tag-based template (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003), the newest proposals (Choi et al. On the other hand, the alternative variants are described through the tags and . An effective Use Case should provide a detailed step-by-step description of how the system will be used by its actors to achieve the planned outcome. In order to answer these research questions, we defined the following search string: (“use case” or “use cases”) and (“product line” or “product lines” or “product family” or “product families” or SPL). Northrop, LM, Clements PC (2007) A Framework for Software Product Line Practice, Version 5.0. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/productlines/frame_report/. r The best way can be conducted to ensure that the written use case templates easily defined. Business event: A trigger that stimulates activity within the business. Section 3 presents the proposed template for textual description of use cases for CASPL and the preliminary evaluation of this template. c Correspondence to 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. The system adds that album to the album library. It’s the interaction between the user and a software system. Gallina, B, Guelfi N (2007) A template for requirement elicitation of dependable product lines In: Proceedings of the 13th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, REFSQ’07, 63–77.. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Example of use case with Specific Section. Neto, PAMS, Machado IC, Mcgregor JD, Almeida ES, Meira SRL (2011) A systematic mapping study of software product lines testing. 1 a Chen, L, Babar MA, Ali N (2009) Variability management in software product lines: a systematic review In: Proceedings of the 13th International Software Product Line Conference, 81–90.. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 2013) have been proposed based on previous ones, these studies do not empirically compare their proposed templates with previously defined ones. Guidance for Use Case Template. 6) aiming to generate a quick overview of the evidence gathered from this SM. 2014)) adapted these artifacts in order to incorporate the SPL variability. [Free Use Case Template] As a business analyst, use cases will help you ask incredibly smart questions about the software, even when you don’t actually know that much about the technology or the business. Figure 2 presents the use case “Withdraw Money” specified in the template proposed by Gomaa (2004). (2014) evaluated their requirements engineering approach, the Feature-Driven Requirements Engineering approach (FeDRE), through a case study for developing an SPL of mobile applications for emergency notifications. Therefore, we did not find a significant difference among levels of previous knowledge related to the participants that justified a special grouping. cus so far has been on analysis of textual descriptions of use cases. c Azevedo, S, Machado RJ, Bragança A, Ribeiro H (2012) On the refinement of use case models with variability support. 0 t the templates of Bertolino et al. 2000) to assess if it is reasonable to assume that both data sets come from a normal population. A use case is a set of scenarios. Nguyen, QL (2009) Non-functional requirements analysis modeling for software product lines In: Proceedings of the ICSE Workshop on Modeling in Software Engineering (MISE ’09).. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. Follow. The subjects using this template structure had better results in terms of time spent. Thus, from the four steps of the study selection process, 12 studies were considered relevant and thus make up the final set of included papers. Jeyaraj, A, Sauter VL (2007) An empirical investigation of the effectiveness of systems modeling and verification tools. Use Case Name: Place Order. 2013). Use Case Template for Financial Trading System. 2013). In this template, additional sections are used to specify performance, usability, and security requirements. How do we describe use cases? Business Analysis. Requirements. The study started with 48 subjects; however, some of the subjects’ tasks were not approved, since the final question of the comprehension test was not answered correctly. In order to mitigate the first threat, the other two authors carefully reviewed the protocol and monitored the SM process and the analysis of the results. 2010). All of them assess the comprehensibility provided by a use cases model. (2014)) presents a metric-based evaluation aimed at assessing quality attributes such as modularity, stability and expressiveness of SPL requirements approaches like the PLUSS (Eriksson et al. Flow of Event Flow of events Facebook; Twitter; Youtube; Vimeo; Gplus; Pinterest; Rss; Call or Whatsapp (703) 468-1921 | Info@RequirementsInc.com . In regards to the twelve included papers, we realized that Validation and Evaluation Research are weakly addressed, because we found only one paper (9%) in the Evaluation Research category and two papers (18%) in the Validation Research category. : there is a statistically significant difference in terms of time required to understand the use cases’ behavior using the evaluated template structures; The independent variables (representing the inputs or causes) of the experimental study were the template of textual use case description, the use cases’ examples, and the questionnaires. You can edit this template and create your own diagram.Creately diagrams can be exported and added to Word, PPT (powerpoint), Excel, Visio or any other document. If so, understanding how use cases improve your business may be beneficial. This template seems to allow the quick identification of the variabilities while reading the use case scenarios, but no evidence related to this was found in the SM. This use case is composed by one optional variant, related to the use of the PIN for the user’s identification, and two optional alternative variants, related with other two types of identification (through fingerprint or voice sample). Then, the maintainability could be a problem with the use of tags for specifying variabilities within the use cases descriptions. The final question was associated with an important question about the use case understanding. From this mapping, we found twelve SPL use case templates and observed the need not only for the application of these templates in real SPL but also for supporting tools. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Email. The interesting about this template is the use of questions (e.g. Cheng, BHC, Atlee JM (2007) Research directions in requirements engineering In: Proceedings of the Future of Software Engineering (FOSE ’07).. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. Moreover, the description of the variabilities at the end of the use case in the Specific Section structure and the use of questions in the structure presented by Bragança and Machado (Tags structure) were also identified as important characteristics to the understanding of the SPL use case. (2010) and Dahan et al. ISS conducted the experiment with the volunteers. Chen et al. Templates for textual use cases of software product lines: results from a systematic mapping study and a controlled experiment. Use case templates can be used to describe functional requirements of a Software Product Line. The Use Case description describes the interaction between the system and the outside world. Finally, with regards to the textual description of use cases, the use case template from Cockburn (2000) has inspired the creation of SPL use case templates (e.g. ERQ1: Which of the evaluated template structures favors the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility? In Section 5, we describe the controlled experiment conducted with the SPL use case templates. Use Case Name: Place Order. John, I, Muthig D (2002) Product line modeling with generic use cases In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Techniques for Exploiting Commonality Through Variability.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. u Colanzi, TE, Assunção WKG, Trindade DFG, Zorzo CA, Vergilio SR (2013) Evaluating different strategies for testing software product lines. Niu, N, Easterbrook S (2008) Extracting and modeling product line functional requirements In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. 2003; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Choi et al. Therefore, the template used for textual use cases in the SPL paradigm should allow the specification of “small variations” (Gomaa 2004) (fine-grained variation), which can affect just one or two lines in the use case description. Benavides, D, Segura S, Ruiz-Cortés A (2010) Automated analysis of feature models 20 years later: A literature review. Once it was detected that there were differences in the time and accuracy associated with the templates’ use, an analysis was made of the data crossing template by template, trying to identify the differences. In order to avoid threats related to the use of a single group, the four treatments (use case template structures) were used for all the subjects. Thus, we believe that the SM process was rigorously followed and that the results obtained are valid. This evaluation was made with respect to the effort from the researcher’s viewpoint. Furthermore, we do not excluded duplicate papers in this step. Use case template; Use-case field Description; Use case name: An active verb … A Use Case Specification is a textual description of the functionality provided by the system. A requirement is a contract or promise that the use case will perform an action or … The test indicated that the time spent and the accuracy of the four groups (related to the four templates) had statistically significant differences. The final question of the comprehension test was used to validate the subject’s task. The systematic map in the form of a bubble plot. (2005) was classified as Evaluation Research, because it presents an industrial case study. Thus, there are proposals for the description of SPL variability in the use cases model with ‘include’ and ‘extend’ relationships (Azevedo et al. 2 Experimental study As mentioned before, we have not found a template suitable for use case des-cription of CASPL. Use Cases are meant to represent the high level functional areas of the system, as represented in a ULM Use Case Model (or use case diagram). ISS carried out the systematic mapping study, and identified the use case templates in the existing work. Researchers will benefit because the SM results indicate existing research gaps that need further investigation. According to Gomaa (2004), fine-grained variation could be specified in the SPL use cases with the following elements: name, type, line of the use case (the target of the variation), and description. From the templates with the Advice Use Case structure, we selected the template from Bonifacio and Borba (2009), because this is the newest with this kind of structure. This gave us a chance to observe any effects due to History and Maturation. (2008) were excluded due to the second criterion. We merged the categories Research Type and Variability Description in a systematic map (Fig. Technical report, EBSE Technical Report. Alferez et al. In this scenario, one of the requirements artifacts most used in SPL development are use cases (Alves et al. 2007; Oliveira et al. Use case description, part 1: Objective: Describe each Use Case with a Textual Narrative. 2011; Petersen et al. Fantechi, A, Gnesi S, John I, Lami G, Dörr J (2004) Elicitation of use cases for product lines In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Software Product-Family Engineering.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. It captures the relationship between the business as a whole and its corresponding customers and partners. Optional features are those features that may or may not be included in the products. Describe each Use Case with a Textual Narrative. Both present a use case example with the template proposed by Bertolino and Gnesi (2003). For agile development, a requirement model of many UML diagrams depicting use cases plus some textual descriptions, notes or use case briefs would be very lightweight and just enough for small or easy project use. c Thus, observing that we have found templates that are recent, the specification of variability in textual use cases is still an interesting research topic. With the tags, use cases can also have a section where the variations are defined; Alternative scenarios: The use case template describes the variations through alternative scenarios within the use cases description; Specific section: The use case template describes all information about the variation points in a specific section. H What is Use case and Use case Testing? Each step should state what the user does and/or what the system responds. Use Case depends on ‘User Actions’ and ‘Response of System’ to the User Actions.It is the documentation of the ‘Actions’ performed by the Actor/User and the corresponding ‘Behaviour’ of the System to the User ‘Actions’. The narrative consists of three basic elements: Triggering event; Main flow of events; … Use cases are represented with a labeled oval shape. Empirical Softw Eng 19(3): 678–713. Then, in spite of the fact that this study has a specific focus (textual use case templates) we chose the Systematic Mapping approach because the main goal of this study is to identify and classify the different SPL use case templates. The students were associated to four universities in Brazil. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has not been a systematic effort to collect and summarize the existing templates for textual use case descriptions in the SPL paradigm and there is no empirical assessment of the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility provided by these use case templates. On the other hand, the disapproval related to the Advice Use Cases structure may be justified due to the separation between the main flow and its variation without an explicit definition of the variation type, making it difficult to understand if the variation is optional or alternative. Use case template; Use-case field Description; Use case name: An active verb phrase that describes a particular task. 2003) report a template that uses Tags to specify variability in the textual use case. 2000) for hypothesis testing. It is often phrased in the form of a dialog between the actor and the system. With regard to the template structures evaluated in this experiment, the Step Identifier structure, where the variability is described in the step identifiers of the use case through some conventions (e.g. Simply put, a use case is a description of all the ways an end-user wants to “use” a system. This template was found in 8 papers from the Step 03 (see Table 3). It was firstly conducted between January and March 2014 (Santos et al. and H Give each use case a unique numeric identifier, in hierarchical form: X.Y. In this scenario, Bonifacio and Borba (2008) show that the use of the PLUC (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003) could result in maintainability issues because introducing a new product variant might require changes in several artifacts. Take a Quick Tour of Visual Use Case (Flash movie, 1MB) To save these files, right click on the link and choose 'Save Target As'. (2013) was classified as Validation Research, because it presents hypotheses and statistical tests. Microsoft Word format Use Case template: Use Case Template.doc: Microsoft Word format Use Case template (zipped) Use_Case_Template.zip: Rich Text Format Use Case template: Use_Case_Template.rtf The work of Bonifacio and Borba (2009) was also classified as Validation Research, because they present four case studies comparing their proposal with the PLUS approach (Eriksson et al. Experts recommend that use case diagrams be used to supplement a more descriptive textual use case. Use Case diagram for Uber service. The use case specification will be based on the activity diagram. : there is no statistically significant difference in terms of time required to understand the use cases’ behavior using the evaluated template structures. The first step in defining a use case is to define the name, using the verb-noun naming convention. Note that there are additional elements to a formal use case that may be included, but are not part of this example. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper and presents future directions. Dari tiap tiap use case yang ada akan kita deskripsikan secara detail dengan Use Case Description. The reference should link to the specific rule defined in the Business Rules artifact. Tiwari and Gupta (2013) conducted a controlled experiment to assess the usefulness of eight use case templates against a set of five judging criteria, namely completeness, consistency, understandability, redundancy, and fault proneness. its efiectiveness (measured in precision and recall) in identifying key concepts in use cases - such as Actors, action verbs, etc. related with the variabilities aiming to guide the instantiation of the product use cases. Kuloor and Eberlein (2002) described and compared requirements engineering techniques used in existing SPL practices. Get step-by-step explanations, verified by experts. 2013). The variable time spent was measured by collecting the time spent in minutes to answer the comprehension test in each task. In the third step, we read the full paper and selected those which have a textual use case template for an SPL with a focus on describing SPL variabilities within the use cases description. The results of this experiment show that the specification of variabilities in the steps’ numeric identifiers of the textual use cases is better to the use case understanding than the other approaches identified. The comprehension tests were made in order to evaluate the comprehension related to each use case considered in the experimental study (in the same way as was done in (Mustafa 2010)). However, it is important to note that, for this experiment, we did not use the feature model in the tasks. The requirements engineering process of an SPL should include strategic and effective techniques for analyzing domains, finding similarities and variabilities, and dealing with a community of stakeholders probably larger than those for single-system requirements elicitation (Cheng and Atlee 2007; Northrop and Clements 2007). Due to this fact, we have conducted a controlled … Use cases are a means of communicating with users and other stakeholders what the system is intended to do. For those who like to read instead of watch, here’s the full text of the video: ... It’s a textual description that captures the user system interaction. As a result, evidence collected shows that the description of commonalities together with variabilities makes the understanding of use cases more clear and the description of all variations at the end of the use case promotes a quick identification of variations. They are: i) Kamties et al.‘s template (Kamsties et al. No Highfalutin Theories! The protocol is a plan that describes the conduct of a proposed SM study (Kitchenham and Charters 2007). Use Case. PASN conducted the result analysis and the hypothesis testing of the experiment. Bertolino, A, Gnesi S (2003) Use case-based testing of product lines In: Proceedings of the 9th European Software Engineering Conference, 355–358.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. (2014)). template (Choi et al. (2013) use the Alternative Scenarios structure in the use case template to describe the variabilities. Neiva (2009) and Alves et al. Besides the two defined categories, we decided to use the category for classification of research defined by Wieringa et al. Choi et al. Subjects who selected the Step Identifier structure as the best structure, for example, reported that it has a simple description and an objective, clean, organized, and compact structure. The purpose of the Use Case is to tie the business needs of the system to the design parameters of the system to ensure that the completed system achieves the goals established by the business requirements. The paradigm of Software Product Line (SPL) has emerged together with large-scale systematic reuse. Then, we present the results and discussion. 1 INTRODUCTION The Uni ed Modeling Language (UML) de nes a use case as \the speci cation of a … The steps must not mention how the system does something. In a recent paper, Oliveira et al. 2014) and two SLRs on requirements engineering within SPL Engineering (Alves et al. Example of use case with Step Identifier (Adapted from (Erikssona et al. Moreover, most of the templates were published in international conferences and one of the templates was found in a book. y Sig.”). Describes a systems’ behavior.In a use case, there is a primary actor that refers to one of the stakeholders in a business. • scenario - a specific sequence of actions and interactions between actors and the system, a.k.a. Product development, also known as Application Engineering, includes the development of final products with reuse. The main reasons for a study which contains a use case template for SPL has not been selected are: i) the publisher sources of the study are not indexed by the databases used in this mapping; ii) the study was not hit by the search string; and iii) the study was written up in a language other than English. As a result, the correct answer to the question is the letter b, which refers to a step mandatory of the use case (see step 1 in the Fig. Galster, M, Weyns D, Tofan D, Michalik B, Avgeriou P (2014) Variability in software systems - a systematic literature review. Furthermore, the work proposing an SPL use case template often does not empirically compare the proposed template with other templates. Then, from the templates of Gallina and Guelfi (2007), and Bragança and Machado (2005) we chose the last one, because it has questions associated with the variations points and we wanted to verify their impact on the SPL use cases’ compressibility.
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